Geography of India

India, formally called the Republic of India, is the country that occupies most of the Indian subcontinent in southern Asia. It has a long history and is considered the world's largest democracy and one of the most successful in Asia. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area and second largest country in the world population wise which makes it an obvious place to have vast geographical features. The mainland stretches from latitude 8o4' north to 37o6' north and from longitude 68o7' east to 97o25' east of Greenwhich.

  • Indian Standard Time: GMT +05:30
  • Telephone Country Code: +91
  • Capital: New Delhi
  • Major Cities: Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore and Chennai
  • Bordering Countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Nepal and Pakistan

It is bordered by Pakistan the north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the east and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea are parts of the Indian Territory. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are great tourist destinations.

Physiographic Regions

India can be divided into five physiographic regions as follows:

  • The Northern Mountains: Mountainous Himalayan region in the northern part of the country.
  • Indo Gangetic Plains: In this region most of India's large-scale agriculture takes place.
  • The Peninsular Plateau: A plateau is a raised area with a flat top. The peninsular India is divided into two parts namely the Malwa and the Deccan plateau.
  • The Island: The Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are India's two major island.
  • The Coastal Plains: A coastal plain is a flat, low-lying piece of land next to the ocean.

India's History

The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which spread through in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, from 3300 BC to 1300 BC.

Aryan tribes are believed to have then invaded the area after they migrated into the Indian subcontinent from the northwest. It is thought that they introduced the caste system which is still common in many parts of India today.

In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka. India and was most successful under its emperor, Ashoka.

Subsequent periods Arab, Turkish and Mongol peoples entered India and in 1526, a Mongol Empire was established there, which later expanded throughout most of northern India. During this time, such landmarks as the Taj Mahal were also constructed.

Much of India's history after the 1500s was then dominated by British influences. The first British colony was in 1619 with English East India Company at Surat.

By the late 1800s, India began working toward independence from Britain. The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete. During the first half of the 20th century, a natiowide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan.

Climate of India

India is a big tropical country and is famous for its diverse climatic features. The word monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word 'Mausim' which means seasonal reversal of the winds during the course of the year. The seasons in India can be broadly categorized into the following:

  • Winter: The months of January and February.
  • Summer: The months of March to May.
  • Monsoon (rainy) season: The months of June to September.
  • A post-monsoon period: The months of October to December.